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Hey thats a great question louiepop. I’ve always wondered that myself.
I assume youre asking about how the touch screen part works. The other insides parts are just like a normal computer, just made very small.
The touch screen is something very cool that people have had in science fiction for a long time. Its existed as a single finger touch for about 10 years, but the dual finger, which allows you to easily turn things around and zoom, is something that Apple gave us.
In an iPad or other types of tablet computer, the screens wither use something called ‘resistive’ or ‘capacitive’ touchscreens. Resistive means the screen responds to the physical touch of your fingers. It can feel the pressure you apply to the screen and where. In capacitive screens, the tablet is looking for the tiny amount of electricity that lives in your fingers to know where you have touched it. Some tablets use a combination of both, so you can use it with your gloves on!
I found a really good website that explains basic touch screen technology here: http://www.howstuffworks.com/iphone1.htm
And gets into the specifics of iPad/iPhone touch screens and how they are different here:
“The iPhone/iPad uses a new arrangement of existing technology. Its touch-sensitive screen includes a layer of capacitive material, just like many other touch screens. However, the iPhone’s capacitors are arranged according to a coordinate system.
Its circuitry can sense changes at each point along the grid. In other words, every point on the grid generates its own signal when touched and relays that signal to the iPhone’s processor. This allows the phone to determine the location and movement of simultaneous touches in multiple locations.
Because of its reliance on this capacitive material, the iPhone works only if you touch it with your fingertip — it won’t work if you use a stylus or wear non-conductive gloves.”